By Chris Jennings
For the Oregon Beer Growler
The use of various fruits in beer has become a commonplace in the brewing world. Almost every brewery produces a beer with fruit in some shape or form. Of all the different fruits that are available, the most widely used are those from the citrus family. There are several reasons that citrus is heavily utilized, but one important factor is that those fruits have flavors that are mirrored in certain hops.
In brewing, the most commonly employed citrus fruits are grapefruits, lemons, limes and oranges and all of these feature two major components: the zest and the juice. When the peel is grated down to the pith, which is a whitish layer that’s very bitter, the resulting zest can be a flavorful and aromatic addition to a brew. Meanwhile, the juice of the flesh can be very acidic and not add much to the overall flavor. However, if you want to use the juice, be sure to test the pH of your wort. It should be somewhere between 5.2-5.5 — getting it closer to 5.2 will help with fermentation.
Naturally, using fresh fruit is best. But if that isn’t an option, most homebrew supply stores will have dried lemon, bitter orange and sweet orange peels. These components can add subtle notes to a beer. And while going over the top can be fun, remember that there’s no going back once the fruit has been added. The only way to soften the blow of too much citrus is to blend the beer.
Citrus is easy to turn to because it’s available year-round. But deciding which fruit to use in this family can prove challenging. For the most part, there are not wrong styles when making a fruit beer. What’s important to consider is how the flavors will play together. Virtually every commercial brewery has a citrus IPA or pale ale on the market, so that might be a good place to begin your experimentation. But if you want to go bold, perhaps you try out a chocolate blood orange imperial porter. Whatever path you choose, there are a few more guidelines regarding the use of the zest and juice.
Just like with hops, the zest has delicate oils that will evaporate if added too early to the boil. They may also get lost during primary fermentation. But incorporating the zest or the juice in stages can help round out the flavor profile and lead to a balanced finished product. The ratios of zest and juice will vary based on what fruit you’ve selected.
Once primary fermentation has occurred, you can taste your beer to see if more fruit flavor is needed. Adding raw zest directly to your secondary as if you were dry hopping is one method to give the brew a boost. You can also give your beer doses of extract, which you can make. Simply pour clear alcohol that’s more than 100 proof into a Mason jar and add the zest of several citrus fruits to the liquid. Allow the mixture to sit for about two weeks sealed at room temperature. Add that to the beer for a fresh zest punch.
Shandies and Radlers
If you’re interested in making a warm-weather appropriate shandy or radler, typically you’re not going to ferment the juice with the wort. These drinks are more commonly a 50/50 mixture of citrus juice and a finished beer. Though some people use the terms “shandy” and “radler” interchangeably, the meaning may vary depending on what region on country you’re in. Either way, both beverages mix beer with something other than beer.
An easy way to experiment with shandies and radlers is by combining one of your favorite homebrews with a touch of citrus juice. Keep adding the juice until you feel like it’s balanced. This will prevent you from risking an entire batch on what may end up being an undrinkable brew. Just remember, homebrewers are the mad scientists of the beer world. No brew is ever a failure. It’s merely another opportunity to perfect our craft.
Zesty Lass Grapefruit IPA [AG]
Zesty Lass Grapefruit IPA [Extract]
Mellie Pullman, who was the first woman brewer at a brewery in Park City, Utah, broke ground again as the first female college professor to launch an online course on the business side of craft brewing. She’s seen here at Terminal Gravity in Enterprise. Pullman lives in Eastern Oregon. Photo courtesy of Mellie Pullman
By Patty Mamula
For the Oregon Beer Growler
Mellie Pullman’s adventures with beer have come full circle. In 1986 she was the first woman brewer at Schirf Brewing in Park City, Utah. Today she is the first female college professor to launch an online certificate program focusing on the business side of craft brewing.
Pullman brought her homebrewing experiments, mechanical engineering degree, some experience at a construction company and a truckload of bravado to Park City while on a ski trip there in the ‘80s. When she noticed a business plan for a new brewery lying on a table at her friend’s condo, she had to read it. Instantly, she decided the job was tailor-made for her.
Soon she was the partner and brewer in charge of production, bottling, hiring and training. “We packaged Wasatch beer (Schirf Brewing) from the day we opened in the fall of 1986,” she said. “We had to ramp up big for the ski season.”
Pullman stayed for three years and Schirf doubled in size every year. Then she moved on to a startup brewpub chain in Arizona. Eventually she returned to Utah to round out her business education. She got her MBA and then her Ph.D., changing direction from brewing to teaching.
In 2005 she moved to Portland to teach at Portland State University’s School of Business Administration. She has concentrated on supply chain management courses, incorporating her extensive background in restaurant work and interest in food into her courses. While teaching and conducting numerous research projects, she became interested in online courses as a way to expand access for students. Several years ago, she floated the idea of a program that focused on the business of craft beverages. With the support of her dean, Pullman began developing the first ever online certificate program for craft brewing, which consists of four courses that take about five weeks each.
The first two courses are Basic Business for Craft Beverages and Craft Beverage Business Management. “It’s a condensed version of business school, focused on how to run a business,” Pullman said. Topics like schedules, cost of product, the most efficient way to market and accounting are covered.
Pullman learned about the ins and outs of online classes by creating them. She designed the curriculum. There are no books. “I took information from the supply chain management course and went out into the field and video recorded people on site. For example, we recorded how a company did labels.
“I have developed the entire content but collaborated with a marketing, finance, accounting and distribution person on their particular classes. I give them guidance and help shape the videos and curriculum. I am not the video star for those classes.
“We were on a shoestring budget. The first videos I shot on an iPhone.”
In an average week, students will watch three to four video lectures, complete several readings and an assignment as well as participate in a live session. At first, Pullman kept herself out of the spotlight, feeling that the experts were the best industry representatives. But in time, she became more comfortable sharing her expertise in front of the camera.
Many local breweries, distilleries and auxiliary businesses are participating in the program, including Cider Riot, Hopworks Urban Brewery, Great Western Malting, New Deal Distillery, Portland Kettle Works, Reverend Nat’s Hard Cider, Rose City Labels, Worthy Brewing Company and more.
“The demand for the program is high,” said Pullman. “We were totally oversubscribed within two weeks when we rolled the program out about three years ago.”
While she said the ideal number of students in a class is 50, the entry level classes are always around 60. The course was offered three times this year because the waiting list was so big. At least one-third of the students in the program are women.
The program is global with students from the U.S., Latin America, Europe and China. Originally, there were many people from the Northwest, but that market has become very saturated. Pullman is interested in doing more work internationally and has changed many of her spreadsheets into metric dimensions. “The broader our appeal, the better it is for PSU’s branding.”
Students can enter the program through any of the individual classes except for Craft Beverage Business Management, which requires the introductory course be taken first. Students must also then complete two of the three electives for the certificate. The program can be completed in 20 weeks. Some people use it to get a better job. One of her students was with Firestone Walker Brewing Company and he’s now the craft beer guy at AB InBev.
In addition to teaching, Pullman is involved with several grant projects focusing on sustainability. Recently, she and another instructor supervised three PSU students who entered an international sustainability competition. Each student invested more than 50 hours researching how to strategically sustain business investments for their chosen client, Hopworks Urban Brewery. They won the oikos Case Writing Competition, which supports the development and use of cases on sustainability, along with 5,000 Swiss francs (about $5,200 U.S. dollars). Pullman and her fellow social entrepreneur instructor are writing a teaching manual based on the project for other academic institutions.
Pullman works in Portland, but lives in Joseph on acreage with a giant vegetable garden and apple trees. “I am a skier and mountain person but prefer the rural emptiness of the Wallowas,”she said. At home in Eastern Oregon she is involved with an emerging craft malt team. And in her spare time this summer, she is completing a book on craft beverage business management with John Harris of Ecliptic Brewing that is expected to be available in August.
A large part of 10 Barrel’s success in Portland is due to head brewer Whitney Burnside’s unique beers. As far as the AB InBev purchase, she said, “There will always be those who frown upon it.” But she hasn’t had any issues with the acquisition and gets “complete creative freedom.” Photo by Patty Mamula
By Patty Mamula
For the Oregon Beer Growler
10 Barrel Brewing Co. opened its newest brewpub in the trendy Pearl area of downtown Portland in February 2015. The opening was just months after 10 Barrel shocked the craft beer world by selling to AB InBev.
It seems the Portland location had been in the works before the sale, but there was much local speculation about how selling out to the corporate beer giant would affect business. Predictions were negative.
Surprise. The Pearl location has been busy from the day it opened.
A large part of its success is due to brewer Whitney Burnside and her unique brews.
Burnside said, “The original plan was that I would make new beers and one-offs for limited release. I have complete creative freedom here.”
The core beers, such as Apocalypse IPA and S1NIST0R Black Ale, are still brewed in Bend.
So far, Burnside has made a mix of ales and lagers. She likes to throw in unusual beers that incorporate different processes and ingredients. A few examples:
— A lychee sour made with the fruit native to Asia that has a white grape flavor
— A Belgian ale made with ginger, honey and hibiscus
— A gose made with Casper pumpkins (the white ones) and bay leaves
The day we met, she had just released a witbier. This style is often brewed with coriander and dried orange peel, but she used dandelion root, toasted cardamom, fresh zested Meyer lemons and true cinnamon.
“We’re slowly starting to put these beers out in the market,” she said. They’re available at the Bend and Boise pubs.
One of her most popular beers, the first one she ever brewed here, is the Pearl IPA. “We keep making it. People love it. It’s the No. 1 best seller,” she said.
Burnside’s path to brewing started in culinary school. The Northwest native from Seattle traced her interest in cooking to TV celebrity chef Alton Brown. “I watched his show all the time,” she said. He’s the one who got her hooked on cooking with his technical, “sciency” style. His shows often focus on a single drink, dish or snack — such as shortbread cookies.
She attended Johnson & Wales University’s College of Culinary Arts in Denver with plans to become a chef. During an externship at The Herbfarm restaurant in Woodinville, Wash., she started making artisanal cheese and homebrewing. She fell in love with brewing and decided she wanted to become a brewer. For her, brewing is similar to baking. They both require detailed measurements, fermentation and meticulous attention to detail.
With her culinary school diploma and a little homebrewing experience, she started looking for a brewing job. She was a tough sell, as much for her lack of experience as her size. Although she finds people in craft brewing are open-minded about female brewers, her petite size didn’t help. “I had a hard time. Finally, Chad Kennedy, the brewmaster at Laurelwood, gave me an internship,” she said.
That was the chance she needed. From there, she put in a short stint at Upright Brewing, a brewery near the Moda Center in Portland that specializes in farmhouse beers. Both of these opportunities were steppingstones to her full-time job at Elysian Brewing Company in Seattle. She stayed there for a year before moving to Pelican Brewing Company in Pacific City, where she was the head brewer for three years. She took the job at 10 Barrel in December of 2014, several months before it opened. That meant she was there for the buildout and installation of the brewhouse.
“The cool part about being here from the get-go was I was able to acquire parts I needed to make the system complete,” Burnside said. She was involved with decisions regarding the piping, plumbing and changes in water.
Burnside brews twice a week, making one 20-barrel batch at a time. Right now, the facility doesn’t have a mill and all the malt is ordered pre-milled. “Bag by bag, we (she has a part-time assistant) climb up the stairs and empty the bags, usually around 25 in all, into the mash tun.” The bags, by the way, weigh around 50-55 pounds. “We’re usually mashed in by 7:30 a.m., well before we open at 11 a.m.,” she said. On the days she is not brewing, Burnside is cleaning, taking care of cellar work, monitoring or doing something with the beer that’s in-process or finished.
The 500-square-foot brewhouse is open on two sides to the pub, separated by a low, black metal railing from the guests. “It’s compact, but works well,” said Burnside. One challenge is finding space for barrel-aging. Right now, she’s managed to squeeze three barrels in between the fermenters. The previously used barrels that once held merlot are now filled with a Belgian dark strong called Alton Bruin after the chef who inspired her.
The craft brew world has been a welcoming place for female brewers, but people who aren’t in the industry are often less so. Burnside said it’s not unusual for a delivery driver to repeat his request to see the head brewer when she appears. As far as the AB InBev purchase, she said, “There will always be those who frown on it.” Personally she hasn’t had any issues.
“I’ve never been told to make a certain beer,” said Burnside. Her only direct contact with the corporation is with one of the people who oversees hop growing and availability. She likes being able to get some of the newer varieties of hops. Ultimately, Burnside is happiest when her hand controls the finished product.
10 Barrel’s founders, Garrett Wales and brothers Jeremy and Chris Cox, continue to run the brewery, which has expanded to the tune of $10 million, six new 400-barrel tanks and an increased capacity of 120,000 barrels a day. So far, even with increased production and new facilities, the quality has remained consistently high and business continues to increase.
By Kirby Neumann-Rea
For the Oregon Beer Growler
Community is the fifth element in brewing to go with water, yeast, barley and hops, according to Oregon brewing pioneer Dave Logsdon.
Logsdon Farmhouse Ales’ founder recently gave an insider’s detailed, and often funny, history of brewing in the Columbia River Gorge and the rest of Oregon. He recounted the roots that were established by Full Sail Brewing Company along with the past decade’s rapidly growing brewing culture in Hood River and nearby scenic towns about an hour east of Portland.
“It is really a story of people working together,” Logsdon said to a room of about 120 people in February. His speech was part of a Sense of Place Lecture held at Hood River’s Columbia Center for the Arts. With him was his wife Judith Bams-Logsdon, a native of Belgium and his muse for beer styles and Belgian menu at their downtown Hood River tasting room.
Logsdon has the authority to re-tell the area’s brewing saga because he was there from the start — first as a leader in the homebrewing revolution in the 1970s and later as co-founder of three anchors in Oregon fermentology: Full Sail, Wyeast Laboratories and Logsdon Farmhouse Ales.
“Full Sail was the gathering point for homebrewers and other like-minded folks, and people saw it was successful,” he said. “When I think of the sense of place, to me it’s mostly about the people. Yes, we have a beautiful valley and river and environment to live in, but it’s the people who have lived here and shared their community to make things possible and make the community what it is. And that’s what I have to say about the brewing community,” Logsdon described. He added, “Even before craft brewing and Brewers in the Gorge (BIG), the large professional brewers had a tradition of working together about science and innovation in order to brew the best beers possible.”
Logsdon’s experiences during the last 40 years span from garage brewing to being a leader in the 500-employee, $50 million Gorge beer economy.
“I left the Midwest in the early 1970s and there were still regional beers with flavor, but as soon as I reached the West Coast, I noticed a distinct difference in beer quality,” he said. “They were all pretty much light lager beers. Working my way through school, I didn’t have the resources to enjoy the beers I wanted to drink, so I started brewing beer.” In 1985, he opened Wyeast Laboratories, which was then a small operation.
“Wyeast was a big part of my life here in the Gorge and part of what I did to bring the fourth element of brewing to the neighborhood. We have abundant hops on both sides of us, acres of barley and the best brewing water in the world, and it was nice to work with my family to bring this fourth aspect of it to the Hood River Gorge.”
He later jumped at the chance to help get Full Sail off the ground with Irene Firmat and Jerome Chicvara. Logsdon remained at the brewery until the mid-1990s.
“We pooled all the resources we could from family and friends and worked for a year to get it financed,” Logsdon said. He said it would not have happened without longtime Parkdale residents Jack and Kate Mills. “They believed in us, invested in us and also helped us raise another large chunk of money through the Oregon Lottery,” he said. What emerged was first called Hood River Brewing Company.
A building that protruded halfway into Columbia Street and a chain-link fence were both in the way of constructing the Full Sail facility. “We knocked it out to get the brewery going,” he said. “Things have changed a lot, and it started with a huge amount of energy. And many of the brewing community members were very encouraging of Full Sail, which became two blocks of Hood River.”
Craft beer, he said, “is here to stay and it has had a huge impact on everything we consume and our approach to life and the values we have in what we create.”
He was part of the “’86 Club,” as he puts it — the brewers who were there when it became legal to brew beer and sell it in the same location. Logsdon pointed to fellow pioneers including Brian and Mike McMenamin, Kurt and Rob Widmer, Karl Ockert, Fred Eckhardt, Art Larrance, Fred Bauman and Jack Joyce.
Logsdon presented a “family tree” of Gorge brewers, with Full Sail brewers moving on to either work for, or found, all but one brewery in the Gorge (Backwoods Brewing Company in Carson, Wash.) Standouts include Double Mountain founder Matt Swihart, pFriem founder Josh Pfriem and Solera brewer and co-owner Jason Kahler.
“The brewing community itself has very deep roots and strengths going back to big breweries working together in sharing knowledge,” Logsdon said. ”Overall, besides of all these good things we have, it’s as much to the credit of the open-mindedness and the progressive thinking you find in Oregonians. It’s the people and the energy putting those things tighter — the willingness to create and take a chance and do what you think is right and work together.”
By Andi Prewitt
Of the Oregon Beer Growler
One word can sometimes sum up the character of a city. While Flint, Mich. has a long and complex history, the story of that particular place can begin and end with “tenacity.” Turns out, it’s not just a fitting term for a city that’s struggled with unemployment, violence and now tainted water. The only craft brewery in town has adopted the name to not only describe Flint’s determination; but also the resolve it took to open the business. More than 2,000 miles away in Portland, tenacity is what it will take for one homebrewer to rally the city, the state and perhaps even the rest of the nation to do more than feel sorry for Flint’s latest crisis. He’s created a call to action for anyone who’s connected to the craft beer community: use your passion for this beverage to raise money for Flint.
Tenacity Brewing sits just several hundred feet from the source of the city’s contaminated drinking water. In a cost-saving move in 2014, Flint stopped buying water from Detroit’s system and tapped its eponymous river, which bends and curves through the heart of downtown right past Tenacity. Although the source was meant to be temporary, complaints about the taste and appearance of the water begin rolling in almost immediately. Then-Mayor Dayne Walling repeatedly brushed off safety concerns despite mounting evidence that the chemistry of the Flint River was causing pipe contaminants, including lead, to leach into the water supply. Children developed rashes from bathing in the water and test results showed higher levels of lead in their blood, which can lead to significant developmental delays.
Additionally, two outbreaks of Legionnaires’ disease sickened at least 88 people, nine of whom died. There’s no proven link between the spate of illnesses and the river water because not a single government agency has tested Flint’s water for legionella. However, these bacteria thrive in water with iron that flakes off of old pipes. Conditions worsen when water temperatures increase during summer months. A Free Press analysis of data collected by the state also discovered that 62 of the 88 people with confirmed cases were exposed to Flint’s water. For two years, residents of the city grew sicker simply by completing life’s daily tasks: showering, brushing teeth and lifting a plain old glass of water to their lips. But a Flint General Motors plant managed to switch to a different water supply a mere six months after river water came online because it was corroding car parts.
As Flint suffered, Dylan VanDetta got mad. He learned about what had essentially become a public betrayal by tuning into MSNBC’s “The Rachel Maddow Show,” as he often does.
“And when I heard what was actually happening and the lack of motivation from the local politicians, I was outraged. Absolutely outraged. And I thought that this is something that we really need to do something about. And we can,” he explained. “And we have a large number of brewers and homebrewers and people that care that would be willing to help out.”
That’s the thing, though, about these large-scale crises — we want to help, but don’t know how. But instead of throwing his hands up and saying ‘Oh well,’ VanDetta, who is treasurer of the Oregon Brew Crew, resolved to reach out in the best way he knew how — by turning to the oldest and largest homebrew club in the state.
“It was unanimous. Nobody even questioned it. They’re like, ‘For sure. Let’s send some money. Let’s do something and help these people.’ I think that helped spur me along and everyone I’ve talked to has similar feelings about it, is they’re outraged,” VanDetta said.
And of all the emotions, anger is one of the most powerful motivators. The Oregon Brew Crew voted to approve a $500 donation, which is being used to recruit additional contributors and volunteers. The effort is still in its infancy, but during the next several months VanDetta is looking for individuals to give their time and ask breweries, as well as beer- and water-related businesses, to get involved. Any and all forms of support are welcome — cash, free kegs and donated space where VanDetta wants to help organize events that would be used as fundraisers. Art Larrance has already promised the use of the Raccoon Lodge & Brew Pub patio in Southwest Portland. The Peninsula Odd Fellows has also pledged its location to the cause. Additionally, a GoFundMe page is now accepting gifts.
VanDetta and those assisting him at this point have already made connections with entities in Michigan, such as the Genesee Brewers Club (named after the county where Flint is located), to ensure the funds raised will eventually be directed by the people who need it. And he has a specific goal: $20,000.
“The reason I came up with that number is it costs — I read an article where it costs about $10,000 to replace the pipes in a single home. That would be about two homes,” he said, “or one home and $10,000 worth of fresh water that we can distribute to the neighborhood.”
He’s also exploring the possibility of distributing water in 5-gallon jugs or borrowed beer kegs, which would be a more sustainable option than the 12-ounce plastic bottles currently employed. The average family in Flint uses about 151 of those containers a day.
The number of requests for assistance these days can already feel overwhelming, particularly with the rise of crowdfunding sites that allow pretty much anyone to ask for help. What would prompt Oregonians, then, to pay special attention to a city more than halfway across the country? Well, if you’re talking to beer lovers, it all begins with the precious nature of water.
“The fact that we have such access, readily access to clean water, and beer is such — it’s such a big component of beer I thought that this would be a great opportunity for us to give back to the community as Oregon Brew Crew, as well as the brewing community across the country — not just Oregon,” VanDetta described. “The fact that we couldn’t make beer without water is disheartening — let alone, you know, drink or bathe in it or wash your clothes or anything like that in that stuff. So whatever we can do to help them is really what we’re trying to do.”
For VanDetta, the cause is also personal. Most people, particularly those fortunate enough to access water from the Bull Run Watershed, don’t think twice when they turn on the faucet. But VanDetta grew up in a poor town in northern New York where they tapped into city water of neighboring Poultney, Vt. The liquid used to be treated in a chlorinating plant until the source changed and the processing ended. Ultimately, VanDetta said officials had to drill a well for the family. While he was only about 6 or 7 years old when his water became unreliable, he never forgot it. The experience allows him to empathize with Flint’s population, but even he can’t imagine going without easy access to water at home for as long as they have.
“It’s something that you just don’t normally think about. And the hassle! Oh, I’ve got to brush my teeth, so I’m going to do down to the store and get water with money that I really have already spent on water. These folks are still paying their water bills for water they can’t drink, so it’s crazy,” VanDetta said. “Most of these folks are poor and they don’t have vehicles. They can’t drive, so they’re carrying the water or they’re not getting the water — they’re using water out of their taps and that’s even worse.”
Family brought VanDetta to the West Coast and the beer is what rooted him in community. He considers joining the Oregon Brew Crew the best $35 he’s ever spent. Membership provided artistic and creative balance to his life that’s occupied, in part, by a 20-year career in IT. While his first meeting in 2012 was intimidating since he says he “knew nothing” about beer other than the fact he loved it, he’s learned a lot from watching others and taking in their feedback on his own brews. He was also drawn to the open, supportive nature of brewers, which he believes will translate into backing for the Flint project.
“I consider it a blue-collar kind of business. They’re really in tune with the work that they do and their hands,” explained VanDetta. “And they make a product that people put in their bodies, and you really kind of have to be careful with that.”
If you’d like to volunteer or donate, email VanDetta at email@example.com. The fundraiser is starting on a modest scale, but plans are big.
“My dream is that it would be nationwide. We would have the brewing community — homebrewers, commercial brewers and water companies across the country helping with this effort. Because, you know, it takes a village to raise a child, right?”
And it’s now becoming abundantly clear that the children of Flint who’ve been affected by tainted water will need an army of support for decades to come.
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