By Oregon State University
For the Oregon Beer Growler
Barley has always played second fiddle to hops and yeast when it comes to flavoring beer. Now the grain is ready for its solo.
In two studies published this week in the “Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists,” a research team led by Oregon State University found notable differences in the taste of beers malted from barley varieties reputed to have flavor qualities.
Consumers aren’t going to see a barley-flavored brew anytime soon in their local pub or grocery store, but the findings are an important first step toward a potential new market for beer connoisseurs, said OSU barley breeder Pat Hayes.
We started this project with a question: Are there novel flavors in barley that carry through malting and brewing and into beer? This is a revolutionary idea in the brewing world. We found that the answer is yes, Hayes said. These positive beer flavor attributes provide new opportunities for brewers and expand horizons for consumers.
In its malted form, barley is the principal source of fermentable sugars for most beers. But barley’s flavor contributions to beer are usually ascribed to the malting process rather than the grain itself.
Barley World, Hayes’ research group at OSU, with financial support from the beer industry, began with two barley varieties thought to have positive flavor attributes in beer: Golden Promise, developed and released in Great Britain, and OSU’s own barley variety, Full Pint. They then crossbred the two. That resulted in several hundred breeding lines of genetic seed stock. Researchers grew the offspring in test plots in Corvallis, Lebanon and Madras.
But there was a logistical challenge in preparing that barley for brewing and sensory testing. OSU’s progeny of Golden Promise and Full Pint each yielded only about 200 grams of malt — not enough for a reasonable sample to produce large quantities of beer for a standard sensory panel.
That’s when OSU teamed with Minnesota-based Rahr Malting Company and New Glarus Brewing in Wisconsin. The companies had developed a brewing system that could produce a single bottle of beer from each unique malt. Dustin Herb, a graduate student in OSU’s College of Agricultural Sciences, spent almost a year at Rahr participating in the micro-malting, nano-brewing and sensory processes.
Out of that initial partnership, about 150 beers were prepared for sensory testing. Each panelist tasted the beers once and then rated them on a scale in their amount of difference compared to an industry standard control beer.
The panelists found that beer brewed with Golden Promise scored significantly higher in fruity, floral and grassy flavors. Beer with Full Pint was significantly higher in malty, toffee and toasted flavors.
The progeny are showing all possible combinations of those traits. And, since researchers had been conducting DNA fingerprinting on these progeny, they can now assign certain regions of the barley genome as being responsible for these flavors. The study also found that there were some differences based on where the barley was grown, but the genetic effect was larger than the environment.
Based on the results of more Golden Promise-Full Pint progeny, finer structure genetic mapping of barley flavor genes is underway with Rahr. Researchers are also working with Deschutes Brewery in Bend to produce more representative beers from three of the selected progeny. OSU is producing 100 pounds of malt of each variety as well as a control sample called Copeland.
All three have unique flavor attributes and are relatively easy to grow. They have outstanding malt profiles. Deschutes is prepared to brew the same beer twice for each of those three and compare that to the control. Those beers are then destined to be sent to other brewers who will conduct their own sensory panels.
In addition to Herb, OSU Barley Project members Tanya Filichkin, Scott Fisk and Laura Helgerson contributed to the research. Collaborators included scientists in England, Canada, Scotland, Spain and the U.S.
The project received funding from the following breweries: Bell’s Brewery, Deschutes Brewery, Firestone Walker Brewing Company, New Glarus Brewing Company, Russian River Brewing Company, Sierra Nevada Brewing Company and Summit Brewing Company. The Brewers Association, an organization of small and independent craft brewers, also contributed financially. Mecca Grade Estate Malt and OreGro Seeds hosted the field trials.
By Bruce Pokarney, Oregon Department of Agriculture
For the Oregon Beer Growler
Oregon exports into South Korea have greatly expanded following the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) of five years ago. The potential of Oregon wines and craft beers is starting to be realized in a country that has developed a thirst for imported alcoholic beverages. South Korea imports nearly $140 million of wine from around the world, and even though the U.S. is responsible for only about $20 million of that total, it’s still significant.
Five years ago, I visited Shinsegae, a large upscale department store in Seoul that also sells food and beverages. Pre-KORUS FTA, there were no Oregon wines to be found in Shinsegae’s well-stocked wine section. Now, several Oregon wines can be located without much effort. Granted, the price is still steep (A 2012 pinot noir from Lange Estate Winery & Vineyards in Dundee goes for more than $100 a bottle) and the Korean consumer is more apt to look for more affordable products. But as the tariffs continue to tumble, Oregon wines are more often on the shopper’s radar.
“The free trade agreement is driving down the tariffs, and that has helped,” said Shawn Kim, who works for the State of Oregon’s Korea Representative Office in Seoul. “People who know and love wine know all about Oregon pinot, which is still more expensive than many other wines in the Korean market but is priced more competitively than it was five years ago.”
Oregon is on everyone’s map when it comes to craft beers. South Korea is no exception.
“Rogue was one of the first American craft brewers to enter the Korean market,” notes Sang Yong Oh, senior marketing specialist at the U.S. Agricultural Trade Office in Seoul. “They have a very solid foundation for their export business to Korea because they were ahead of others. I think Rogue is a very good example of how American suppliers can benefit from the export opportunity in Korea by being active in Korea.”
The key for a craft brewer seems to be supplying enough volume to satisfy the demand. There is plenty of competition from beers exported by other countries, but Oregon can be a big player in a market where it’s trendy to ask for an imported craft brew.
It will be interesting and exciting to see how many more Oregon products might find a home in South Korea over the next couple of years.
Looking for travel inspiration? Check out our monthly Road Trip series — a fun beer adventure across Oregon! This month's featured region is the Central Willamette Valley. Come back next month to explore Southeast Portland!
By Jon Abernathy
For the Oregon Beer Growler
This past November Deschutes Brewery unveiled its latest project: a new 2.4-hectoliter (approximately 2-barrel) pilot brewery, tucked into a space next door to the tasting room at the production facility in Bend. The system, a state-of-the-art, fully automated brewhouse manufactured by Esau & Hueber, of Germany, came online in May.
Diminutive by production standards — the imposing conical bottoms of the brewery’s ten 1,300-barrel fermenters loom overhead — the pilot brewery, nevertheless, is more advanced than many other similarly sized systems.
It features two kettles and whirlpools, and allows for splitting a batch of wort into two for boiling in order to compare different varieties of hops in an otherwise-identical recipe, for example. In addition, there are 12 single (2.4-hectoliter) fermenters, one double fermenter and six brite tanks.
The software that runs the system is the same that runs the main 150-barrel production brewhouse, so it’s well-suited for training brewers. And the automation reduces the amount of hands-on tinkering with a batch, as well as allowing for precise fermentation temperature control.
Deschutes spared no expense in developing the pilot brewery, according to R&D brewmaster Veronica Vega. “I'm proud to work for a company that invests this much on research,” she said.
Assistant brewmaster Chris Dent oversees operations on the pilot system. By the year’s end he estimated that they had brewed 40 batches on it, and they are brewing four times a week.
The experience has been a valuable learning opportunity. Asked about surprising or unexpected results with test batches: “I’m always amazed by the influence of vessel geometry and design on flavor impact,” Dent said. “We’ve started splitting brews into the two kettles and it’s really driven the impact of system variances home. Even very slight differences in the vessels are creating differences in the brews that we have to account for in our trial design.”
Deschutes has long used its brewpubs in downtown Bend and Portland as pilot breweries to develop recipes and test batches of beer with the drinking public. It makes sense: from a scale perspective, it’s cheaper and more efficient to trial a 10-barrel batch directly at the pub than a 50-plus barrel batch in production.
For instance, the brewery famously made 23 versions of a Cascadian dark ale between its two pubs before finalizing the recipe for Hop In The Dark. More recently, the original Hop Slice, introduced in 2016, went through eight to 10 recipe iterations before Deschutes settled on the final beer.
The pilot brewery, however, won’t just be used for recipe development; there’s a real opportunity for researching technique and the relationship among ingredients. An upcoming project designed by Vega will examine yeast and hops.
“Studies such as this one give us the knowledge as brewers to expand the horizon of what’s possible in beer from a flavor and aroma perspective,” said Dent, “and really pairs well with a lot of the more analytical research on the interaction of yeast with hops that’s being done in the industry.”
Vega has several projects she’s excited about for the pilot system: “Continued native yeast experimentation, hop aroma impact due to yeast selection and continued flavor trials in American sour beers.”
By Chris Jennings
For the Oregon Beer Growler
While there’s always something new and interesting happening in the beer world, it’s important to occasionally look back on how breweries began to get a new perspective on techniques and styles. There is plenty of research available to homebrewers that highlights the development of beer throughout the centuries. By digging into the past, we may be able to try out a new recipe to begin the next year of making beer at home.
In the beginning, it’s believed that the brewing of beer was the result of a happy accident. Grain was likely left outside in the rain, creating the perfect set of circumstances to create the first batch of beer. We commend the brave soul who took the initial sip of this probably terrible-smelling, odd-looking concoction. But the risk obviously paid off.
The process was then refined over a long period of time and it took quite a while for humans to discover the science that makes it all happen. But modern beer wouldn’t be what it is today without the first homebrewer. As with musicians, it can be helpful for beer makers to examine their historical counterparts. Some interesting ingredients have come and gone and reappeared. One example is heather tips, which are found in some modern brews. Finding a way to mesh the past and the present can lead to new and wonderful flavors.
Whoever came up with the phrase “You can’t reinvent the wheel” never met a homebrewer on a mission to create the next exciting style. Every year new beers hit the market that in some form or another first came about in a home-based brewery. While it may seem as though everything under the sun has been tried (or even some experiments that shouldn’t have seen the light of day), that doesn’t mean we should stop trying to build upon and improve the Cascadian dark ale or even the India pale lager. With all of the new ingredients made available every year, it’s only a matter of time before a Belgian-style peanut butter imperial IPA has swept the country. The objective should not be to shock people, but instead try to find the perfect balance of ingredients that is truly unique.
This constant struggle is the curse of the homebrewer. Along the way there will be epic failures, but instead of viewing them as losses embrace the experience as a learning opportunity. While we know that the liquid that comes out of our fermenters doesn’t always taste right, there are always plenty of friends who are more than happy to drink it anyway.
Dubbel Double Bubble [AG]
Dubbel Double Bubble [Extract]
OBG Blog Archives
Welcome to our archive pages! Read stories from the print edition of the Oregon Beer Growler from June 2012 to January 2018. For newer stories, please visit our new website at: